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On the pages of history, St. Joseph, the patron saint of New France, is pictured as a kindly, beneficent spirit of protection and defense, invoked by the French voyager. In the Book of Saints, he is pictured in grey tunic and saffron mantle, carrying wallet and pilgrim staff.

The personified characteristics of his geographical namesake, reveals a much more militant figure, for St. Joseph, with other counties, in the course of the century has been compelled to change the saints gray and saffron of peace to buff and blue, and with flint-lock gun instead of the pilgrim staff a powder horn for the wallet, stand as a protector and a defender of principles. Then through the years of unfolding civilization, we find him as defender of his home, garbed in the faded brown and tattered homespun, as he guarded the Indian trails. In the blue of Company E, 15th U.S. Infantry, in the Mexican War, when at Cherubusco with the soldiers of Cass and Kent, Kalamazoo and Jackson Counties, St. Joseph shares the glory of turning the tide of war from defeat to victory.

In the Civil War, breveted in rank for superior merit, the flag of the regiment honored and one of its men, Frank Dwight Baldwin, decorated with the nation's highest award, the Medal of Honor; and again we find St. Joseph in the Spanish American War with Company K of the 33rd Michigan National Guard; and yet again in the World War, in blue or khaki, in camp or cantonment, under the seas, on the seas or across with the 85th or "Les Terrible". As a soldier of Michigan, St. Joseph has maintained the traditional magnificent courage of Michigan at war, but through it all retained the kindly beneficent spirit that endeared the American soldier in a world at war.

The records of Michigan soldiers are scattered nation wide. The task of collecting them is great, but many appreciative agencies have been at work and the Three Rivers Public library has a fine collection, rosters of all wars, though none of them complete.

Revolutionary War

Through the Commissioner of Pensions, the records of pensioners of the Revolutionary War, living later in St. Joseph county, were obtained: Mede Hrud, pensioned for services in Connecticut line; Elisha Stanley, on the pension role for services in Connecticut; and Private Sweet. Other Revolutionary soldiers who are known to be buried in the county include; Mark Watkins, Leonidas; Pardon Field, Ketchum Corners;


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Rev. Edward Evans, Constantine; Blind Johnny Foust, Moorepark; and Ahira Brooks, at Sturgis.

There is a distinctive pathos about the lives of the Revolutionary soldiers who follow children or grandchildren to a home in the wilderness. The indirect testimony gleaned from the laws under which the soldiers were pensioned, deepens the growing conviction that not the least courageous act in the life of a soldier of 1776 was his immigration to Territorial Michigan.

In the quiet little cemetery of Constantine, where aro(SIC) buried some of Michigan's greatest men, there lies Edward Evans, who served in the New York line under Lieut. Abraham TenEyck, 1781-1783. The Rev. Edward Evans was described in the "Constantine Mercury", Jan. 17, 1854, as "a soldier of the Cross and the Revolution, who lived in St. Joseph County. His youth was spent amidst the stirring events of the Revolution. He entered the Revolutionary army in 1781, at the age of 15, and was two years employed in active service. He was honorably discharged with his compatriots at the city of Albany. He entered the ministry in 1789 and settled in Enfield, Grafton County, N. H. Here Mr. Evans was elected a member of the legislature. Later he served 12 years as judge of probate.

"Joining the westward migration, Mr. Evans moved to western New York, then to Ohio. He spent the last seven years of his life with his children in Michigan. He was a member of Siloam Masonic lodge, Constantine." His grave was officially located by the Abiel Fellows chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution in 1907 and marked in 1917 by the Algonquin Chapter, of St. Joseph and Benton Harbor. A record of his life and descendants was compiled by the state historian of the D.A.R. in 1918, and was published by the Smithsonian war records.

In Leonidas village cemetery lies buried Mark Watkins, soldier 1776, who was born in Partridgefield, Mass. He enlisted as drummer boy, Jan. 1, 1776, in the company of which his father was captain. They were captured in the battle of Hubbardstown. Ct. July 7, 1777, and taken to Ticonderoga, where the boy was held four months a prisoner. It is related that Gen. Borgonyne, seeing the lad, pitied him, and sent him home as a present to his mother, the captain's wife. Mark Watkins served under Colonel Phinney, Colonel Brewer and Colonel Abiel Fellows until the end of the war. In 1784 he married Esther Legg in Partridgefield. In 1793, they moved to New York. In 1833 with his son Levi and family, Mr. Watkins came to Leonidas, where he followed farming and his trade as millwright. He died in 1836, and his will is


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among the first 100 filed in St. Joseph county. His grave was officially marked Sept. 23, 1916 by the Abiel Fellows chapter Daughters of the American Revolution.

Sturgis also has its hero of the war for freedom. Ahira Brooks, buried first in the "old cemetery", then in the new Sturgis cemetery. He was born March 10, 1760. He died in 1858. The fact that he was "A Revolutionary Soldier" is inscribed on his tombstone. In 1909, his name was offically recorded by the D.A.R. through Miss E. L. Newhall, Sturgis.

More recently the Abiel Fellows chapter located the grave of "Blind" Johnny Foust, a soldier of the Pennsylvania line, buried in Moorepark cemetery. His grave was officially marked by the chapter.

Still another soldier whom St. Joseph county honors through the lives of his descendants, is Abiel Fellows, who served in the Connecticut line and fought in the battle of Saratoga. He was born at Caanan, Connecticut, October 17, 1764, died in 1833, is buried on the Fellow's farm at Prairie Ronde.

Mr. Fellows came to Michigan in 1829 and was closely identified with the settlement of Kalamazoo county. In honor of his daughter Lucy, (Mrs. B. E. Andrews), the organizing regent of the Three Rivers chapter Daughters of the American Revolution, the chapter was named "The Abiel Fellows Chapter," in 1905.

Mexican War

The war clouds of the "forties" were responsible for the old muster roll of 1845, loaned by Wm. Langley, which gives the following information:

"Militia roll of Colon Township for the year 1845.

"Names of persons liable to do military duty: Edwin Schellhous, Cyrus Schellhous, 'Phintast' Farrand (1820-1896, farmer), David Finch, James Noyes, Samuel Finch, Harris Norton, Horace Eggleston, John Tyler, G. H. Knapp, Stephen Atchinson (1819-1856), Auson Marvin, Horatio Austin, David Marrows.

"Names of persons pleading exemption, (reasons why exempted): Gilbert Liddle, weak eyes; Samuel Gorton, mail carrier; Leonard Schellhous, ill health; Louis A. Leland, mail contractor; L. C. Mathews, ill health; H. K. Farrand weak eyes; Leonard Travis, ill health; John Booth, loss of finger; James R. Burns, loss of finger; Joseph H. Clowes, bad eyes;


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Greorge A. Garrison, ill health; Ira Garrison, burnt hands; Hiram Draper, sickness; A. C. Chaffee, weak eyes;

"Names of persons liable to do military duty: Florence Vaughn (1815-1883, farmer); Peter Wagner (1810-1889, farmer); James Maynard, Abel Finch, Daniel Wagner (farmer); Nelson Mathewson, John Booth, Daniel Booth, James Teller, W. F. Teller, W. M. Niles, Benjamin Adams, Daniel K. Adams, Harvey Dane (1823-1900, miller); Gardner Moorehous, Marshall Marvin, Osman Marvin, Lewis Shubert, Adam Bower, John Bower, Jr., Samuel King, George W. Brooks, Frederick Engle, D. C. Rogers, Joseph Davis, Abel Belote, Comfort Tyler, Dewitt C. Tyler, Samuel Tyler, Chas. Doughty, C. R. Hills, Alvin Hoyt, Franklin Doughty, Norman Bishop, Oliver H. Shaw, Noah Shaw.

"Names of persons exempted, (reasons why): Dave Lephy, broken shoulder; Rin Danberry, ill health; Chas. Bathrick, weak eyes.

"Names of persons liable to do military duty: M. P. Thurston, Gillean Hopper, Clinton Mop, C. A. Goodrich, Hugh McMilan, I. E. G. Hathway, Samuel Riley, Isaac Bower, W. M. Bower, Lofus Hyatt, Milton McMillen, Marcus McMillen, Henry Buys, Daniel Buys, John F. Knapp, Richard Buys, John Putnam,(Sic) Tunis Putman, Chas. Lyons, Wesley Emery, Isaac Wagner, Isaac Eberhard, Solomon Eberhard, Loran McKey, W. M. Jackson, David Eberhard, Ambrose French, Ryan Buys, Barnard Eberhard, Wm. H. Castle (1812-1887, farmer), Chas. Rumsey, John Blain (1818-1876), machine shop, Wm. F. Bowman, James Palmer, Chas. Palmer, Myron Palmer, Chas. Tyler, I. D. Sutphen, Rockwell Hazen, Franklin Hazen, R. I. Hazen, David Gilberry, Robert English, Edward Haynes, Thomas Cutler, Sands Riley, A. B. Mills, E. F. Mills, C. W. Legg, Daniel Ricknor, A. W. Bradley, A. W. Belote, Tobias Born (1818-1890), merchant, Joseph Newton, J. Hazen, R. WIlliams, Bradley Goodrich, John T. Montrop, H. T. Williams.

Col. Isaac D. Toll and Company E, U.S.A.

In the Mexican war, which gave to our nation as additional area seventeen times as great as that of the state of New York, St. Joseph men in Company E. of the 15th U. S. regulars, carried the flag of the regiment. The company was commanded by Isaac D. Toll whose voice, rising above the din of battle, could be heard as it rang in the rallying call: "Michigan! Michigan! Rally to the flag, Michigan!" Splendid old St. Joseph company turning the tide of war, - a gallant prototype of St. Joseph's equally gallant men who fought in later wars.


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The following is quoted from an address by Colonel Toll before the Michigan Pioneer Association: "The 15th Regiment of U. S. Infantry was composed of five companies, three from Michigan, one from Wisconsin and one from Ohio, under Colonel George W. Morgan. Michigan companies were A, E, G. The two first ones were with General Scott in the Battle of Mexico. Company A formed the grenadiers and was on the right of the regiment under S.E. Beach. Company E. led by Isaac Toll had command of the colors and was the center of the regiment. It was composed of men from Niles, Kalamazoo, Grand Rapids, Jackson, Branch and twenty-five from St. Joseph county - "among them that peacock of all drum majors, Francis Flanders, who was as brave as Caesar".

Fawn River was the recruiting station. In later years Colonel Toll described the experiences in Mexico, the intolerable heat, the poor rations, the lack of equipment, the almost unbearable hardships of the war. He calls the regiment the "Forlorn Hope" and vividly pictures the diminishing forces, but he said, through it all: Michigan companies A and E behaved splendidly under most galling and destructive fire concentrated upon the regiment. Of my company, the gallant Goodman fell early in the battle. He was in every respect a most superior man, soldier and gentleman .. No choicer, truer spirit ever went down before a hostile bullet. My first sargeant, John Cunningham, whom because of illness I had ordered to remain at the rear. I found to my surprise in line as covering sergeant. Shot through the thigh, he continued to load and fire as he sat on the ground. He had no superior as a drill master and had rather be a second lieutenant than president of the United States. He died from his wound on the third day of battle. Daniel P. Hanks, the life of the file, and his half brother, Fitch Cornell, were each shot. So, too, Colonel Perkins, the ever useful N. B., John H. Cook, Clark Munson, Wesley Gordon, Richard Corbus, Isaac Smith; wounded , John McCann, color-bearer, received a stunning blow on the head while holding the colors but falling, he held fast, and they had to be removed from his dead hands by force. Lieut. Titus, ever cool and daring ,distinguished himself by his steady valor. Sergeant William S. Smith, who had worked for my father as a mill-wright in Fawn River, was highly esteemed. I protested his going to Mexico with me. Go he would. He was afraid of only one thing, he said, and that was that he would not behave well under fire. He stood next to me - as the men fell around us his eyes had their usual calm, steady light, but he was impatient


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to charge, - long before the command came. Sergeant Smith died of sickness on his way home. "The achievements of the 19th and 20th of August, 1847, performed by half famished men, the marches and battles are matters of record". Colonel Toll spoke feelingly of the loss of Ludlow Cox, son of Deacon Peter Cox of Centerville; of Thomas W. Hamblin and of Solomon Gilmore of Branch county. "Corporal Horace Bartholomew of Fawn River, my old neighbor, son of Joseph Bartholomew, the first settler on the river of that name in Fawn River township, who with two brothers, Levi and Theron, was among the first to enlist, on this day was among the foremost wounded. He was unfit to go into action, which he did contrary to my orders, he died at the company quarters in the castle of Chapultepec".

We are told that "Company E met with heavy loss because when ordered to advance, the flanking companies on either side, fell back leaving the colors exposed."

In an address given in Detroit in 1878, Colonel Toll paid the following tribute to Michigan's Companies A and E. "We see them at Contreras on the 19th of August, 1847, over the pedegral confronting Valencia with his vastly preponderating numbers, under a heavy artillery fire; at night on picket guard in a cold rain, 7000 feet above the sea; on the morning of the 20th, ere dawn, in line to assault, thence in pursuit with but a few moments rest at San Angelos; haversacks emptied the day before, - twelve miles to the sanguinary field of Cherubusco. The exhausted men filing rapidly on to Cououcan, then to the attack against five times their numbers; Company E, it's captain wounded, it's first lieutenant killed, its first sergeant mortally wounded, it's color bearer shot down, grimly clinging to his colors, one half the rank and file disabled. Those who fell are not forgotten. Though no procession of tributebearing pilgrims may decorate their graves in a foreign land, this day we bring to them the immortelles of memory. Though no sculptured stone may record their virtues, an exalted national patriotism, - the crowning excellence of a civilized earth - is their monument. The pedregal of Contreras, the garits of San Antonio, Belen and Cosme, the Puente Nacional, the cypresses, centuries old when Cortez conquered - all are mute witnesses of their valor as they rest".

Years after the close of the Mexican war, Colonel Toll in response to a toast: "Volunteers of Michigan," dwelt with great eloquence upon the necessity of adequate national defense that could be depended on in emergencies; pleaded that the youth of the land have opportunity for adequate training. "Though the spirit of our institutions is opposed to large standing armies, bitter experience has demonstrated that


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though peace is most desirable, only sleepless vigilance can preserve that which our pioneer ancestors suffered for and died to obtain."

Fawn River's famous son Colonel Isaac Toll, was the son of Philip and Nancy DeGraffe Toll, who came to St. Joseph county in 1831; settled first at Centreville, then Fawn River. Col. Isaac Toll is descended from five generations of soldiers, his grandfather was a soldier of the Revolution.

Civil War

Ed. M. Prutzman

In the Michigan room of the Three Rivers public library there hangs a large picture of a young soldier - a boy in uniform, and no matter how briefly the early years of Three Rivers may be told, a tribute to this young man should be given, for Ed. M. Prutzman typifies the spirit of St. Jo' county -- through a boy's heroic devotion to duty.

Ed. M. Prutzman was the son of the Hon. A. C. and Mrs. Mary L. Prutzman, pioneers. He was born in Three Rivers, September 11, 1842. He was educated in the Three Rivers schools and when the nation was torn by civil war he enlisted at Kalamazoo at the age of 20 as sergeant major of the Twenty-fifth Michigan Infantry. He was promoted to second lieutenant, Company 1, then as first lieutenant and in 1863 because of duty well performed at Louisville, Kentucky, commissioned as adjutant by the gallant Colonel O. H. Moore. He was sent to Green River to intercept General Morgan, then on to Knoxville. As a recruiting officer he came back to Michigan, - to Grand Rapids and Jackson. In August 1863 he became Acting Assistant Adjuntant General, First Brigade, Second Division, Twenty-third Army Corps.

He was granted a furlough but so intensely did he feel his country's need that he made application at Washington to shorten his leave of absence. After ten days he was sent back to his regiment at Resaca, Georgia, where he took part in the battle of May 14, 1864.

His regiment participated in a charge which drove their opponents from a strong and well fortified position. The charge was made under a murderous fire of musketry and artillery, over an open field and through a creek with water waist deep. The regiment lost 50 men in less than five minutes and Adjutant Ed M. Prutzman was among them. Mr. Prutzman went to Resaca, identified his son, and brought him back. He is buried at Riverside.

In appreciation of his spirit of devotion to his country in her time of need, the Three Rivers post of the Grand Army of the Republic was named the "Ed M. Prutzman Post."


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The service of St. Joseph county is epitomized in the following paragraph from the inscription on the Governor Blair monument, "The War Governor's" last message: - "Again and for the last time I commend the Michigan troops to your continued care and support. They have never failed in their duty to the Country or to the State. Upon every battlefield of the war their shouts have been heard and their sturdy blows have been delivered for the Union and Victory. It is my sole regret at quitting office that I part with them."

Frank Dwight Baldwin, Major General, U. S. A. On St. Joseph county's Roll of Honor the name of Frank Dwight Baldwin, M. H., Major General, U. S. A., leads all the rest.

Breveted in rank for duty gallantly performed, twice decorated by Congress for dauntless courage beyond the line of duty, Major General Frank Dwight Baldwin's eventful life found fitting close when in recognition of his years of brilliant service, he was laid to rest with the nation's greatest sons at Arlington.

The life sketch of General Baldwin adds thrilling interest to an historic outline of great events of our nation. Beginning with his spirited entry, as a Constantine boy, into the United States Volunteer Army as a second lieutenant of the Michigan Horse Guards, continued by sagacity and courageous fighting as chief of scouts during the Indian campaigns and through gallantry and intrepidity advanced in rank in the regular army during the Spanish-American war and the Philippine Insurrection - and then "beyond the line of duty" after his retirement had become operative by reason of the age limit, again responded to the call of the colors during the World's war as Adjutant General of Colorado. Even a brief summary of the life of General Frank Dwight Baldwin proves the truth of General Miles declaration: "Frank Baldwin is a man, a real man, the bravest man I ever knew."

As a boy of eighteen, Frank Baldwin ran away from his home in Constantine to enter service and was promptly brought home. He ran away again and again he was returned. Then a third time and with boyish defiance threatened to kill any one who again attempted to take him back. His parents finally consented and so when Company D, 19th Infantry was organized Frank Baldwin was made first lieutenant and mustered in, September 5, 1862.

In the Civil war he rose steadily, breveted in rank for duty gallantly performed, decorated for conspicuous bravery beyond the demands of duty. General Baldwin's military records continuously bear testimony of splendid service through


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five wars. As captain of Company D, 19th Michigan Infantry at Peach Tree Creek, under a galling fire, ahead of his own men, he singly entered the enemy's line, captured two of their commissioned officers fully armed, beside a stand of regimental colors.

Again in the Indian wars he was decorated for his gallant rescue of white girls by a voluntary attack on Indians who far outnumbered him.

When Lieutenant Baldwin was in the Southwestern division, with headquarters at Oklahoma, he played an important part in the Indian warfare. When asked about it, he laughingly declared one of the incidents was founded on a "bluff", loading tent utencils into an empty wagon and driving the mule teams as fast as they could run along a dry river bed towards hundreds of hostile Indians. He had only two companies with him and afraid the Indians would escape with the girls he could not wait for reinforcements. The terrific din of the wagons driven down the dry river bed frightened the Indians and they fled leaving behind them two of the prisoners whom the army was seeking. The story of the prisoners and their capture by the Indians was told by Scout Clark who served with Lieutenant Baldwin.

"With wagon and trailer a family by the name of Simpson had left Georgia for the far west. The family consisted of the father and mother, two older girls, Sophia and Catherine, two sons and two young girls, Julia and Adelaide.

One evening two young Indians appeared and were very attentive to the two older girls and one of them kept saying to Sophia: 'Ve-nah-is-tain Wak-ukh-tam' (Come to be at home in my teepee). The girls were frightened but finally the Indians left when Scout Clark appeared. He was interpreter at Ft. Reno, Oklahoma. He had noticed signs of Indians on the war path and warned the travelers. His apprehensions were justified for the Indians encircled the party and they entrenched fought as best they could. Clark crept quietly through their lines and started for reinforcement. The Indians, however grew tired of the siege and with their horrible war cry: "Shev-e-i-e-yo-tait tah-nah-ho!" (Charge kill them!) After a desperate defense, the father and brothers were killed and so was the mother and the four girls captured.

"The two older girls were captured by Chief Stone Calf and his aide Kicking Bird, to whose belts hung the scalps of the murdered father and brothers. The shrieking girls were led away, the two little girls given into the charge of the squaws.


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"When the soldiers came, the scene can be imagined. In swift pursuit they swung after them, Frank Dwight Baldwin as chief of scouts, and of Troop D of the 6th U. S. Cavalry and Co. D of the 5th U. S. Infantry.

"Sighting the Indians, Lieutenant Baldwin ordered the charge of empty wagons. The Indians fled in terror, though shooting as they fled. A tent of buffalo skins seemed to be the object of much concern to the Indian that approached it carefully plugged'.

When the soldiers had time to explore the Indian camp, they found the tent of buffalo skins covered two of the most forlorn little girls ever seen, who said to the soldiers: "We are so glad you came, we heard sister praying for God to send the soldiers". One of the men - Scotty- constituted himself guardian of the little girls. The men contributed parts of their own clothing towards material for garments for the girls. Later Stone Calf tried to surrender to Lieutenant Baldwin but the army refused to accept his surrender until he surrendered the two older girls.

General Baldwin was on duty as chief of Scouts during the campaign against the confederated bands of Cheyennes, Keowas, Arapahoes and southern Comanches, participating in the engagements against them and continuing in duty until its successful termination, in 1875, by the utter defeat of all the hostile Indians in that region.

In 1875 command of the escort to Lieut. E. Ruffner, engineer, and later in the year accompanying Colonel Nelson A. Miles to Maxwell's ranch, New Mexico, where he successfully settled the threatened trouble with the Apache Indians. He acted as adjutant to six companies in the Rosebud operations against Sitting Bull and his confederated bands including Crazy Horse and other famous Indian chiefs, - engagements which resulted in the surrender of the Sioux, NezPerces and Bannocks. A brief sketch can give but few of the episodes in Gen. Baldwin's life.

In the Philippine insurrection General Baldwin was in the thick of battle as the story of the Datto and the "Green 27th" illustrates.

Colonel Baldwin was called to the states and arrived in San Francisco Dec. 4, 1901. There he immediately assumed command as colonel of the newly formed 27th U.S. Infantry enroute to the Philippines. Arrived at Parang-Parary, Mindanao P.I. Feb. 17, 1902, and there his work was as brilliant as it had been in the past. He and his "Green 27th" were pitted against the Moros of Mindanao against


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the Mohammedan tribal chieftains called Dattos, who had precipitated trouble by the murder of American soldiers. Our authorities demanded the surrender of the murders, the Datto evaded and parleyed but to his request for further parley, Col. Baldwin replied: "Go to ......!" We are going to fight!" and fight they did. "The green 27th. pounding at a walled fortress at the battle of Bayan. It was a battle in which the Datto personally sought to sever the head of Colonel Baldwin with his knife, then fell dead, the result of a bullet from Colonel Baldwin's revolver. They fought --- fought like the men they were, and the green 27th scaled the walls of the fortress and planted the flag there - the flag of the United States and of victory."

On receiving the news of the remarkable capture of the principal fort of the hostile Moros, President Roosevelt cabled: "Congratulations and thanks for splendid courage which has again carried our flag to victory."

Colorado claims General Baldwin and paid deserved tribute to him at a banquet given in honor of General John Pershing, at Denver, January 20, 1920. General Pershing paid the following friendly tribute to General Baldwin: "One thing has added greatly to my pleasure and that is to meet again my old time and distinguished friend, Frank D. Baldwin. I had the pleasure of serving under General Baldwin's bringing up."

General Baldwin acted as Adjutant General of Colorado during the World War, but Michigan claims General Baldwin because he was born in Michigan, Married in Michigan to a Michigan girl, and began his great military record as a soldier in Michigan Infantry and there is little doubt that Michigan heartily endorses the letter by General Brooks, written several years ago to Senator J. C. Burrows of Michigan: --

"It occurs to me that Michigan could not do a more graceful thing than see that this officer's most valuable service during the war of the Rebellion and since, is not allowed to be passed over. Certainly his State, through its representatives in Congress, should, in my opinion, see to it that one of its most gallant sons be the object of solicitude to the end that his gallant deeds may not fail to be of record in its archives".

General Baldwin died at Denver, Colorado April 22nd, 1923 and was buried with military honors at Arlington, April 28, 1923.

In abbreviated outline the following tells the story of Frank Dwight Baldwin, Major-general of U.S.A.; born Manchester, Michigan, June 26, 1842; son Francis Leonard and


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Betsy Ann (Richards) Baldwin; educated public schools, Constantine, Michigan and Hillsdale College; married Alice Blackwood of Northville, Michigan Jan. 10, 1867. Served in Civil War as 2nd lieutenant Michigan Horse - Guards, Sept. 19-- Nov. 22, 1861; 1st lieutenant 19th Michigan Infantry, Aug. 12, 1862. In regular army as 2nd and 1st lieutenant, 19th Infantry Feb. 23, 1866; Transferred to 37th Infantry, Sept. 21, 1866, to 5th Infantry May 19, 1869; captain March 20, 1879; major April 26, 1898; lieutenant colonel in General Volunteers May 9th, 1898; transferred to 3rd Infantry Nov. 3, 1899; lieut. colonel 4th Infantry Dec. 18, 1899; transferred to 1st Infantry July 23, 1901; colonel 27th Infantry July 26, 1901; brigadier general U. S. A. June 9, 1902. Breveted captain Feb. 27, 1890., "for gallantry in action against Indians in Texas," and major "for Gallantry and successful attack on Sitting Bull's camp of Indians on Red Water River, Montana, " Dec. 18, 1876; Medal of Honor "for distinguished bravery in battle of Peach Tree Creek, Ga., July 20, 1864, "while serving as captain 19th Michigan Infantry; Medal of Honor "for distinguished gallantry in action against Indians in Texas, November 8, 1874". Commanded first body of civilized troops that ever successfully reached the south shore of Lake Luanao (Island of Mindanao), and after desperate encounter with Moros at battle of Byian, May 2, 1902, completely evercame them, Americans losing 51 killed and wounded out of 471, and the Moros losing over 300, less than 30 escaping; in command S. W. Division. Retired June 26, 1906. Adjutant general of Colorado, April 1, 1917 - April 21, 1919. Degree LL. D. conferred by Hillsdale College, Michigan 1904. Buried at Arlington April 28, 1923.

World War Harry Hill Bandholtz, Major General, U. S. A. Though the Centennial Souvenir is a collection of stories of the earlier years of St. Joseph county, it would be very incomplete were recognition omitted of Brigadier General Harry Hill Bandholtz of the World War. General Bandhlotz was born in Constantine, December 18, 1864, the son of Christopher and Elizabeth A. (Hill) Bandholtz, was educated in the schools of Constantine, was graduated from U. S. Military Academy in 1890 with the grade of second lieutenant and advanced through service to major general in 1923. He was appointed to the chair of military science and tactics at Michigan Agricultural College, 1896. He served with the 7th Infantry through the Santiago campaign and 2nd Infantry in the Philippine campaigns. He was made governor of Taya-


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bas province and rose in grades until he was in command of the District of Southern Luzon and conducted the campaign which resulted in the destruction of Simeon Ola's forces. As commander of Central Luzon, he forced the surrender of Montalan and other outlaws. For his excellent service he was made Brigadier General and chief of Philippine constabulary. Other promotions followed. He became major of the 30th Infantry in 1915, and chief of staff, N. Y. Division on the Mexican border. Was chief of staff of 27th Division until Feb. 9, 1918, then commanded 58th Infantry. Served as Provost Marshall General of the A.E.F. September 1918 to August 1919. General Bandholtz served as American representative on the Interallied Military Mission to Hungary in 1919. He also commanded the 13th Infantry. After the World War he served in command of the District of Washington.

Among his many citations for extraordinary service were the D.S.M.; Commander French Legion of Honor; Croix de Guerre with palm; Commander Belgain Order of the Crown; Commander Italian Order of the Crown; Grand Cross of the Crown of Rumania; Montenegrin decoration and the Order of Commander Saints Maurace of La Sauris.

Through the years General Bandholtz kept a personal diary. It contains especially interesting accounts of the activities of the victorious Balkan nations and the alertness of General Bandhlotz in protecting the invaluable treasures of the Imperial Hungarian Museum. It was General Bandholtz who was ordered to officially conduct the Arch Duke from the imperial palace and thus end the reign of the century old Hapsburg dynasty.

Lieutenant Colonel Cleveland Hill Bandholtz (born 1891) is the only son of General H. H. Bandholtz and his first wife, Alice May Cleveland whom he married in 1890.

Concerning his service overseas, General Bandholtz wrote: "I went overseas with the 29th Brigade. My first trip across was entirely for observation and at that time I went into action with the staffs of British and French officers. When I arrived in France with my American forces (29th Brigade) I went immediately into action at Verdun, from there I conducted drives at Argonne. I was required to be on the front lines most of the time". As Provost Marshal, to which position I was appointed after the first two drives, I had charge of the Military Police divisions and the supervision of the 50,000 prisoners of war.

"Three days before I was to sail for home with my forces I was ordered to report to Budapest, Hungary. I experienced much difficulty in getting there... which I only did by getting reservations with Herbert Hoover by special train. Budapest


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was a whirlpool of robbery, crime and Bolshevism". General Bandholtz denounced the cruelty of the Roumanian army in Hungary and ended with a strong plea for the preparedness of the U.S.A.

General Bandholtz died Dec. 5, 1925 and is buried at Constantine. A bronze tablet on the plain granite marker carries the following inscription:

"In loving memory of Major General Harry H. Bandholtz 1864-1925. Graduate of West Point, served in Spanish-American War; Governor of Tayabas Province, P.I.; chief of Philippine Constabulary; In A.E.F. as chief of Staff, 27th Division; Commander 58th Brigade, 29th Division and Provost Marshal General, American Representative Inter-Allied Military Mission to Hungary. Beloved by all."

General Bandholtz served, also as Commander in Chief of the U.S.W.V., 1908.
       Gold Star Honor Roll of St. Joseph County in the World War
          Note - Abbreviations used in this article: A. E. F., American 
                         Expeditionary Forces;)
     (b., born; d., died; ed., educated; eng., engagement; Inf., Infantry; m., married; s., son;)  
Austin, Harold Darwin, b. June 19, 1902 at Owosso, Mich.; s. of Lewis and 
    Nettie E. (Walbridge) Austin; ed. pupil Three Rivers High School; War 
    service: Inducted into service, Jan. 15, 1916 at Elkhart, Ind. Private 
    in C. A. C. 66th; was stationed at Ft. Banker---Ky; Ft. Adams, R. I.; 
    Ft. Rodman--Hospital; Ft. Banker---Base Hospital, at Winthrop, Mass. 
    where he died Nov. 19, 1919; buried Riverside.      
Baer, Clyde Cicero, b. April 26, 1894 at Mendon, Michigan; s. of Charles and 
    Katie Baer; Ed. in Mendon schools, occupation farmer; held residence at 
    Mendon.  War service: Canp Custer Co. a, 312 Engineers. Draft No. 806.                  
    Transferred Camp Pike, Ark. where he died Jan. 30, 1918; buried Mendon.                                                              
Behan, William, b. March 6, 1889 at Ann Arbor, Mich.; s. of Christopher 
    Behan.  Was a barber, Three Rivers.

PAGE 187

    Died of influenza at Camp Custer, May 16, 1918 before being inducted 
    into service.  Would have been called May 25th.
Blood, Robert B., b. Jan. 31, 1901 near Bristol, Ind. s. of J. C. and Meda 
    Blood.  War service: Enlisted Feb. 6, 1917, Ft. Bliss, Texas, Troop 1, 
    7th cavalry.  Died Aug. 13, 1921, buried Riverside, Three Rivers.
Brown, Arthur Floyd, b. March 5, 1894, in Florence twp. St. Joseph county; 
    s. of John and Mary (Pattee) Brown.  Was lace maker at Marshall Fields, 
    Chicago; Enlisted Oct. 3, 1917 at Waukegan, Ill.  War service: Private, 
    Co. E. 324th Inf.--Draft No. 1659.  Transfered Camp Grant, Rockford, 
    Oct., 4, 1917; Camp Logan, Houston, Tex.  In training was wireless 
    operator with 122 Field Artillery.  Died at Houston Feb. 15, 1918; 
    buried Centreville, Mich.
Cole, Harold. b. 1897. s. of Jerome Cole. married Myrtle Anderson of 
    Houghton, Mich. 1916; War service: Entered Camp Custer, Sept. 15, 1918. 
    Arrived in France Nov. 11, 1918.  Died overseas Feb. 8, 1919.
Cross, Fred b. April 29, 1818 near Three Rivers, Mich. s. of Geo. W. and 
    Mary L. (Bent) Cross.  Was a farmer.  Held residence Three Rivers.  
    Military service:  Enlisted March 17, 1918 at Lawton, Mich.; arrived at 
    Camp Custer, March 19, assigned to Co. I, 1st Battn., 160 Brigade at 
    Camp Custer.  Died at Base Hospital Camp Custer May 24, 1918.
Eberhard, Glen M. b. Feb. 3, 1898, s. of David W. and Alice (Stell) Eberhard 
    at Colon, Mich. Pupil Three Rivers High School.  Residence, Three 
    Rivers.  War service:  Enlisted Oct. 12, 1918, Provate S.A.T.C.U. of M. 
    Ann Arbor.  Died October 17, 1918, buried Riverside, Three Rivers.
Estes, Simon A. b. Jan. 16, 1898; s. of Alton B. and Clara E. Estes.  Former 
    resident of Mendon; graduated from Mendon High school.  Died at Naval 
    training camp, Mass. Sept. 27, 1918.  Service:  Co. 16 U.S. Radio 
    School. Great Lakes.
Hass, Eugene b. Aug. 2, 1899. s. of Michial and Emma Hass; Residence Mendon.  
    War service: Private 67th, 5th reg.  Arrived in France the last of June, 
    1917.  Transferred to Southampton, England, Oct. 1917.  Killed in action 
    at Belleau Wood June 7, 1918.
Hice, Louis Krum, b. Aug. 24, 1894 at Three Rivers; s. of Bert S. and Eva M. 
    (Krum) Hice.  Student at Michigan Agricultural College.  Machinist by 
    trade.  Residence, Three Rivers.  War services: Inducted Sept. 19, 1917 
    at Camp Custer, 2nd Co. M.P.; Identification No. 297018.  Transferred to 
    Waco, Texas, Oct. 25, 1917; to Camp McAr-

PAGE 188

    thru Feb. 6, 1918. Overseas. Arrived at Liverpool, England March 5, 
    1918.  Arrived France Mar. 13, 1918.  Louis Hice left with the first 
    contingent for Camp Custer and was the first Three Rivers man to die 

    The following excerpts from a diary kept by Louis Hice gives the 
    itinerary of the troops from Texas to the front line trenches.
Feb. 2, Houston; Troma, La.; Lake Charles. Fayette got off for exercise, 
    band played.  New Orleans 6 p.m.; crossed Miss. river on car ferry at 10 
    p. m.
Feb. 8, Mobile, Ala. 6 p. m. Glimpse of Gulf.  Nakome, Fla. , Montogomery 
    1:30 p. m. exercise and march through Camp Sheridan, Ohio and Ind. 
    troops. 5 mi out. Atlanta, Ga.
Feb. 9, Evansville, S. C.; Monroe, N. C.  Exercises and cars fumigated.
Feb. 10, RIchmond, Va. Washington, D. C. 12:00 served by Red Cross; 
    Baltimore,---Tunnels galore.  Susquehana river, some bridge.  
    Philadelphia, served by Red Cross cigarettes and apples. Statue of 
    Liberty 11:00 all aglow.
Feb. 11, Domont, N. J. Detrained, Camp abt. 3-4 mi. from Station.
    great weather
Feb. 25, Loaded on Olympic at 10 a. m.
Feb. 26, Left at 7 a. m. Life belts distributed to be worn all time. Sea 
Feb. 27, Mar. 1, On guard first night at sea--- Taken off ---sick; wow ! 
    Fellow doesn't care what happens.  Snowed some.
Mar. 2, Storm--Our boat is numbered H. M. S. 2810.
Mar. 3, Some storm, in danger zone, waves over deck. gunners on 8 hrs. with 
    4 hrs. off duty; Have 4 American destroyers at night.
Mar. 4, Got a sub., aft at 4 p. m. by depth bomb, saw it !
Mar. 5, Harbor, 1 p. m.---docked at 3.  Stayed on board.
Mar. 6, Enroute to Winchester---Coffee at Birmington.  Arrived at camp at 4 
    a. m.
Mar. 7, Some beds and meals!
Mar. 10, Southampton, then aboard the St. George, La Havre
Mar. 11, At rest camp.
Mar. 12, Up at 5:30 a. m. and left in box cars, 40 hommes 8 cheveaux--corned 
    beef and hard tack--a nights experience never to be forgotten.
Mar. 13, First American issue of rations since the States---Hot Coffee and 
    apples.  Some tired.
Mar. 18,  Telephone school, In afternoon university of Spade and Pick.
Mar. 20, Confined to camp.  Scarlet fever.

PAGE 189

Mar. 22, Field day.
Mar. 31, Easter----Had communion and an official bath---a warm one----sure 
    great.  First one on guard. 23 men left for automobile school.
April 7, Official bath morning.  Range afternoon.
April 8, Pete and I at Canteen.
April 13, Quarantine lifted. 
April 20, Groomed horses all day.
April 21, Night---dead tired, had bath, mud to my knees---disgusted with 
    absurd doings."
No letter was received from Mr. Hice after June 12. In that one he wrote of his regiment's being stationed in a little village just back of the front line trenches and that they were being continuously bombed.

Hill, Earle Laverne, b. May 18, 1891 at Lawton, Michigan; s. of Henry Hill.  
    Married Nov. 13, 1914 to Fern Thrope at Porter, Mich., July 1, 1896.  
    Occupation clerk.  Residence Three Rivers.  Service: Was 5 years on 
    U.S.S. "Beals;" and book 2nd I. on the "Managhan."  He enlisted July 15, 
    1918 at Detroit in the navy.  Assigned to Great Lakes. S. C. 2nd I U. S. 
    N.; Died Sept. 24, 1918 at Waukegan, Ill.; buried at Marcellus, 
Hull, Levi Welsh, b. Sept. 15, 1890 at Constantine, Mich. s. of Lee Gray and 
    Fanny (Welsh) Hull.  A printer.  Held residence at Constantine.  
    Enlisted Sept. 7, 1918 at Camp Suracuse, a private in 91 Co. 22nd Battn.  
    Identification No. 22623. Died at Syracuse Hospital Oct. 6, 1918.
Johnson, Raymond Warren, b. Nov. 9, 1891 at Marcellus, Mich. s. of W. W. 
    Johnson.  Occupation druggist; residence Three Rivers.  Inducted June 
    24, 1918 at Centreville as private.  East Lansing T. C. July 15, 1918;  
    Transferred to Ft. McHenry Sept. 13, 1918.  Died of influenza Oct. 4, 
    1918; buried at Riverside.
Klopfenstein, John, b. April 25, 1896 at Berne, Ind. s. of John and Katie 
    (Hilge) Klopfenstein.  Held residence at Sturgis.  Enlisted at 
    Centreville;  Inducted in 328 B. G. Battn. at Camp Custer, Sept. 22, 
    1917.  Identification No. 114673.  Served overseas.  Instantly killed 
    April 12, 1918.
Krull, Rueben, b. Jan. 4, 1892 at Fabius township, Mich. s. of John C. and 
    Nettie (Laverance) Krull.  Occupation farmer.  Inducted into service at 
    Camp Custer, Oct. 3, 1917; pvt. Co. I, 126 Inf. M. N. G.; M. Police, 
    85th Dev. Served with A. E. F. France.  Went overseas April

PAGE 192

    July 22, 1918.  Was in battles of Meuse, St. Mihiel and Argonne.  Was 
    taken prisoner by Germans at Argonne.  Wounded Oct. 18 and died Dec. 11, 
    1918 at Vittal, France.  Grave 257 American cemetery.
Not the glories but the horrors of the World's War and the splendid spirit of endurance which characterized the St. Joseph county men, are shown in a letter written by Arthur Stears and published in the Daily Commercial of December 31, 1918.

He writes: "I am writing this from the Base Hospital in France. I feel that I have done my bit in this great war for I have lost my left leg. I was transferred from the 85th to the 3rd. Was in Co. F 38th. This was four times filled in with new men and fifty four added to Co. F and I was one of the new men. The 38th was called the "Rock of the Marne" for courageously holding back the Germans under great odds in the battle of July. I am proud to belong to the 38th.

"I have gone through many trying experiences and lots of suffering and have seen terrible sights - towns and homes destroyed. I was wounded and captured on the Argonne front Oct. 18 at two in the morning. I had been sent out as a runner to see who was on the right flank and I ran into the Germans, thinking them French. They shot at me and wounded me in my left leg. I crawled away but they found me and took me from one place to another, finally on Oct. 24 to the hospital at Longway. The Germans found blood poison had set in and did not operate. Would have been better off in an American hospital. After the Germans evacuated, the French cared for me until the Americans came .. I hope my next move is to the U.S.A.

Stenberg, Lyall F. b. July 14, 1892 in Porter twp. s. of P. O. and Lottie 
    Stenberg of Constantine.  He entered service at Milwaukee, Wis. and went 
    to Camp Grant May 1918; overseas in July 1918.  Was killed in action 
    Nov. 6, 1918 in France.
Swartz, Robert Edward b. April 15, 1894 at White Pigeon. s. of Edward and 
    Clara Swartz of White Pigeon.  Arrived in Camp Custer May 27, 1918.  
    Inducted in Co. H. 338 Inf., Div.,;  Transferred to Co. C 162 Inf., 3rd 
    Div.  Served overseas with A. E. F. in France.  Died in France Sept. 23, 
    1918.  Reinterred at White Pigeon Oct. 29, 1920.
Symon, Donald A. E. b. Nov. 9, 1894 at Vandalia, Mich.  Inducted in army at 
    Camp Custer Aug. 29, 1918.  Died there Nov. 5, 1918.

PAGE 193

Van fleet, Frank, b. March 20, 1892 at White Pigeon. s. of Joseph and Cora 
    Gardner Van Fleet.  Enlisted in navy March 1918.  Entered Naval Reserve 
    Force, at San Pedro, Calif.  Transferred to Pelham Bay, N. Y. and Cape 
    May N. J.  Acted as listener in U. S. submarine chaser No. 74.  Died 
    Nov. 11, 1918 at Cape May N. J.  Buried at White Pigeon,
Van Selous, Emery William, b. Oct 20, 1892 in Branch Co. Mich. s. of Carl 
    and Mary (Cook) Van Selous.  Residence Three Rivers.  Inducted in army 
    as private at Columbus Bks. May 10, 1918.  Served in France with 155 Air 
    Squad. A.E.F.  Died Nov. 28, 1918. Buried in France, later reinterred at 
Welty, Russell W. b. March 25, 1895 at Colon, Mich. s. of Frank Frease and 
    Marie H. (Liddle) Welty.  Inducted in service May 27, 1918 in Co. H. 
    338th Inf. at Camp Custer.  Transferred to Co. F. 38th Inf.   Overseas.  
    Died at Treves, Germany, Dec. 18, 1918. 
Wenzel, Byron  Walter, b. Oct. 16, 1890 at N. Y. s. of William and Ida 
    (Wiand) Wenzel of Sherman twp.  Inducted in service as private 37th Co. 
    10th Battr. 160 Depot brigade.  Transferred to Co. A, 126th, 32nd Div. 
    at Camp McArthur, Texas transferred to Camp Merritt, N. J. Overseas Feb. 
    1918.  Was in all bettles of 126 Inf. to date of his death.  Was killed 
    in action during the battle of Soissons.  Aisne-Marne, Oise-Aisne def.  
    Buried at Sturgis.
White, Marshall G. b. Sept. 15, 1893 at Mendon, Mich. s. of Otis S. and 
    Clara May White.  He was inducted in service at Camp Custer May 25, 1918 
    in Co F, 337 Inf., E. F. France.  Returned to U. S. April 4, 1918.  Died 
    at Kalamazoo hospital April 27, 1920.  Buried Riverside, Three Rivers.
Wood, Clark b. April 1, 1896, Porter twp. Van Buren Co., s. of Hiram and 
    Hannah (Bennett).  Enlisted at Kalamazoo May 9, 1917.  First camp at 
    Grayling, Aug. 17, 1917 in Co. C. 32nd M. N. G.  Transferred as corporal 
    in Co. C, 126 Inf., transferred to Co. A. 126th at Camp McArthur.  With 
    A.E.F. in France.  In battle of Verdun.  Killed at Argonne, Wood,buried 
    in France.
Wm. Henry b. Jan. 21, 1889 at Porter twp. s. of Hiram and Hannah (Bennett) 
    Wood.  Enlisted at Kalamazoo April 9, 1917.  Inducted in Co. C. 32nd M. 
    N. G. Died May 30, 1917, buried in Riverside, Three Rivers. 
St. Joseph county has on file the records of over one thousand men from St. Joseph county who served in the


PAGE 194

World's War. They were among the corps of whom Gen. John J. Pershing, Commander-in-chief of the American army in France, issued the following order:

General Pershing's Tribute

"It fills me with pride to record in general orders a tribute to the service achievements of First and Third Corps, comprising the First, Second, Third, Fourth, Twenty-sixth, Twenty-eighth, Thirty-second and Forty-second divisions of American Expeditionary forces.

"You came to the battle field at a crucial hour for the Allied cause. For almost four years, the most formidable army the world has yet seen had pressed its invasion of France and stood threatening its capitol.

"At no time has that army been more powerful and menacing than when, on July 15, 1918, it struck again to destroy in one great battle, the brave men opposed to it and to enforce its brutal will upon the world and civilization.

"Three days later in conjunction with our Allies you counter-attacked. The Allied armies began a brilliant victory the marks the turning point of the war. You did more than give the Allies the support to which, as a nation our faith was pledged. You proved that our altruism, our virility or our courage.

"You have shown that American initiative and energy are as fit for the tasks of war as for the pursuits of peace. You have justly won unstinted praise from our Allies and the eternal gratitude of our countrymen.

"We have paid for our success with the lives of many of our brave comrades. We shall cherish their memory always and claim for our history and literature their bravery, achievement and sacrifice."

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